Make a Multiplayer Car Game With PUN 2

NSDG | Nov 29, 2019 | 0 Comments
Make a Multiplayer Car Game With PUN 2
137

Making a multiplayer game in Unity 3D is a complex task, but luckily there is number of solutions that simplify the development process.

One of such solutions is Photon Network. Specifically the latest release of their API called PUN 2 which takes care of server hosting and leaves you free to make a multiplayer game the way you want.

In this tutorial I will be showing how to create a simple car game with physics synchronization using PUN 2.

Unity version used in this tutorial: Unity 2018.3.0f2 (64-bit)

Part 1: Setting up PUN 2

The first step is to download a PUN 2 package from the Asset Store. It contains all the scripts and files required for multiplayer integration.

  • Open your Unity project then go to the Asset Store: (Window -> General -> AssetStore) or press Ctrl+9
  • Search for "PUN 2- Free" then click the first result or click here
  • Import the PUN 2 package after Download is finished

  • On the creation page, for Photon Type select "Photon Realtime" and for the Name, type any name then click "Create"

As you can see, the Application is defaulted to the Free plan. You can read more about Pricing Plans here

  • Once Application is created, copy the App ID located under the App name

  • Go back to your Unity project then go to Window -> Photon Unity Networking -> PUN Wizard
  • In PUN Wizard click "Setup Project", paste your App ID then click "Setup Project"

The PUN 2 is now ready!

Part 2: Creating multiplayer Car game

1. Setting up a Lobby

Let's start by creating a Lobby scene which will contain a Lobby logic (Browsing existing rooms, creating new rooms etc.):

  • Create a new Scene and call it "GameLobby"
  • In GameLobby scene create a new GameObject and call it "_GameLobby"
  • Create a new C# script and call it PUN2_GameLobby then attach it to "_GameLobby" object
  • Paste the code below inside PUN2_GameLobby script

PUN2_GameLobby.cs

using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;
using Photon.Pun;
using Photon.Realtime;

public class PUN2_GameLobby : MonoBehaviourPunCallbacks
{

    //Our player name
    string playerName = "Player 1";
    //Users are separated from each other by gameversion (which allows you to make breaking changes).
    string gameVersion = "1.0";
    //The list of created rooms
    List<RoomInfo> createdRooms = new List<RoomInfo>();
    //Use this name when creating a Room
    string roomName = "Room 1";
    Vector2 roomListScroll = Vector2.zero;
    bool joiningRoom = false;

    // Use this for initialization
    void Start()
    {
        //Initialize Player name
        playerName = "Player " + Random.Range(111, 999);

        //This makes sure we can use PhotonNetwork.LoadLevel() on the master client and all clients in the same room sync their level automatically
        PhotonNetwork.AutomaticallySyncScene = true;

        if (!PhotonNetwork.IsConnected)
        {
            //Set the App version before connecting
            PhotonNetwork.PhotonServerSettings.AppSettings.AppVersion = gameVersion;
            PhotonNetwork.PhotonServerSettings.AppSettings.FixedRegion = "eu";
            // Connect to the photon master-server. We use the settings saved in PhotonServerSettings (a .asset file in this project)
            PhotonNetwork.ConnectUsingSettings();
        }
    }

    public override void OnDisconnected(DisconnectCause cause)
    {
        Debug.Log("OnFailedToConnectToPhoton. StatusCode: " + cause.ToString() + " ServerAddress: " + PhotonNetwork.ServerAddress);
    }

    public override void OnConnectedToMaster()
    {
        Debug.Log("OnConnectedToMaster");
        //After we connected to Master server, join the Lobby
        PhotonNetwork.JoinLobby(TypedLobby.Default);
    }

    public override void OnRoomListUpdate(List<RoomInfo> roomList)
    {
        Debug.Log("We have received the Room list");
        //After this callback, update the room list
        createdRooms = roomList;
    }

    void OnGUI()
    {
        GUI.Window(0, new Rect(Screen.width / 2 - 450, Screen.height / 2 - 200, 900, 400), LobbyWindow, "Lobby");
    }

    void LobbyWindow(int index)
    {
        //Connection Status and Room creation Button
        GUILayout.BeginHorizontal();

        GUILayout.Label("Status: " + PhotonNetwork.NetworkClientState);

        if (joiningRoom || !PhotonNetwork.IsConnected || PhotonNetwork.NetworkClientState != ClientState.JoinedLobby)
        {
            GUI.enabled = false;
        }

        GUILayout.FlexibleSpace();

        //Room name text field
        roomName = GUILayout.TextField(roomName, GUILayout.Width(250));

        if (GUILayout.Button("Create Room", GUILayout.Width(125)))
        {
            if (roomName != "")
            {
                joiningRoom = true;

                RoomOptions roomOptions = new RoomOptions();
                roomOptions.IsOpen = true;
                roomOptions.IsVisible = true;
                roomOptions.MaxPlayers = (byte)10; //Set any number

                PhotonNetwork.JoinOrCreateRoom(roomName, roomOptions, TypedLobby.Default);
            }
        }

        GUILayout.EndHorizontal();

        //Scroll through available rooms
        roomListScroll = GUILayout.BeginScrollView(roomListScroll, true, true);

        if (createdRooms.Count == 0)
        {
            GUILayout.Label("No Rooms were created yet...");
        }
        else
        {
            for (int i = 0; i < createdRooms.Count; i++)
            {
                GUILayout.BeginHorizontal("box");
                GUILayout.Label(createdRooms[i].Name, GUILayout.Width(400));
                GUILayout.Label(createdRooms[i].PlayerCount + "/" + createdRooms[i].MaxPlayers);

                GUILayout.FlexibleSpace();

                if (GUILayout.Button("Join Room"))
                {
                    joiningRoom = true;

                    //Set our Player name
                    PhotonNetwork.NickName = playerName;

                    //Join the Room
                    PhotonNetwork.JoinRoom(createdRooms[i].Name);
                }
                GUILayout.EndHorizontal();
            }
        }

        GUILayout.EndScrollView();

        //Set player name and Refresh Room button
        GUILayout.BeginHorizontal();

        GUILayout.Label("Player Name: ", GUILayout.Width(85));
        //Player name text field
        playerName = GUILayout.TextField(playerName, GUILayout.Width(250));

        GUILayout.FlexibleSpace();

        GUI.enabled = (PhotonNetwork.NetworkClientState == ClientState.JoinedLobby || PhotonNetwork.NetworkClientState == ClientState.Disconnected) && !joiningRoom;
        if (GUILayout.Button("Refresh", GUILayout.Width(100)))
        {
            if (PhotonNetwork.IsConnected)
            {
                //Re-join Lobby to get the latest Room list
                PhotonNetwork.JoinLobby(TypedLobby.Default);
            }
            else
            {
                //We are not connected, estabilish a new connection
                PhotonNetwork.ConnectUsingSettings();
            }
        }

        GUILayout.EndHorizontal();

        if (joiningRoom)
        {
            GUI.enabled = true;
            GUI.Label(new Rect(900 / 2 - 50, 400 / 2 - 10, 100, 20), "Connecting...");
        }
    }

    public override void OnCreateRoomFailed(short returnCode, string message)
    {
        Debug.Log("OnCreateRoomFailed got called. This can happen if the room exists (even if not visible). Try another room name.");
        joiningRoom = false;
    }

    public override void OnJoinRoomFailed(short returnCode, string message)
    {
        Debug.Log("OnJoinRoomFailed got called. This can happen if the room is not existing or full or closed.");
        joiningRoom = false;
    }

    public override void OnJoinRandomFailed(short returnCode, string message)
    {
        Debug.Log("OnJoinRandomFailed got called. This can happen if the room is not existing or full or closed.");
        joiningRoom = false;
    }

    public override void OnCreatedRoom()
    {
        Debug.Log("OnCreatedRoom");
        //Set our player name
        PhotonNetwork.NickName = playerName;
        //Load the Scene called Playground (Make sure it's added to build settings)
        PhotonNetwork.LoadLevel("Playground");
    }

    public override void OnJoinedRoom()
    {
        Debug.Log("OnJoinedRoom");
    }
}

2. Creating a Car prefab

The Car prefab will use a simple physics controller.

  • Create new GameObject and call it "CarRoot"
  • Create new Cube and move it inside "CarRoot" object then scale it up along Z and X axis

  • Create new GameObject and name it "wfl" (abbreviation for Wheel Front Left)
  • Add Wheel Collider component to "wfl" object and set the values from the image below:

  • Create new GameObject, rename it to "WheelTransform" then move it inside "wfl" object
  • Create new Cylinder, move it inside "WheelTransform" object then rotate and scale it down until it match the Wheel Collider dimensions. In my case the scale is (1, 0.17, 1)

  • Finally duplicate the "wfl" object 3 times for the rest of the wheels and rename each object to wfr (Wheel Front Right), wrr (Wheel Rear Right), wrl (Wheel Rear Left) respectively

  • Create new script, call it "SC_CarController" then paste the code below inside it:

SC_CarController.cs

using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;

public class SC_CarController : MonoBehaviour
{
    public WheelCollider WheelFL;
    public WheelCollider WheelFR;
    public WheelCollider WheelRL;
    public WheelCollider WheelRR;
    public Transform WheelFLTrans;
    public Transform WheelFRTrans;
    public Transform WheelRLTrans;
    public Transform WheelRRTrans;
    public float steeringAngle = 45;
    public float maxTorque = 1000;
    public  float maxBrakeTorque = 500;
    public Transform centerOfMass;

    float gravity = 9.8f;
    bool braked = false;
    Rigidbody rb;
    
    void Start()
    {
        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody>();
        rb.centerOfMass = centerOfMass.transform.localPosition;
    }

    void FixedUpdate()
    {
        if (!braked)
        {
            WheelFL.brakeTorque = 0;
            WheelFR.brakeTorque = 0;
            WheelRL.brakeTorque = 0;
            WheelRR.brakeTorque = 0;
        }
        //Speed of car, Car will move as you will provide the input to it.

        WheelRR.motorTorque = maxTorque * Input.GetAxis("Vertical");
        WheelRL.motorTorque = maxTorque * Input.GetAxis("Vertical");

        //Changing car direction
        //Here we are changing the steer angle of the front tyres of the car so that we can change the car direction.
        WheelFL.steerAngle = steeringAngle * Input.GetAxis("Horizontal");
        WheelFR.steerAngle = steeringAngle * Input.GetAxis("Horizontal");
    }
    void Update()
    {
        HandBrake();

        //For tyre rotate
        WheelFLTrans.Rotate(WheelFL.rpm / 60 * 360 * Time.deltaTime, 0, 0);
        WheelFRTrans.Rotate(WheelFR.rpm / 60 * 360 * Time.deltaTime, 0, 0);
        WheelRLTrans.Rotate(WheelRL.rpm / 60 * 360 * Time.deltaTime, 0, 0);
        WheelRRTrans.Rotate(WheelRL.rpm / 60 * 360 * Time.deltaTime, 0, 0);
        //Changing tyre direction
        Vector3 temp = WheelFLTrans.localEulerAngles;
        Vector3 temp1 = WheelFRTrans.localEulerAngles;
        temp.y = WheelFL.steerAngle - (WheelFLTrans.localEulerAngles.z);
        WheelFLTrans.localEulerAngles = temp;
        temp1.y = WheelFR.steerAngle - WheelFRTrans.localEulerAngles.z;
        WheelFRTrans.localEulerAngles = temp1;
    }
    void HandBrake()
    {
        //Debug.Log("brakes " + braked);
        if (Input.GetButton("Jump"))
        {
            braked = true;
        }
        else
        {
            braked = false;
        }
        if (braked)
        {

            WheelRL.brakeTorque = maxBrakeTorque * 20;//0000;
            WheelRR.brakeTorque = maxBrakeTorque * 20;//0000;
            WheelRL.motorTorque = 0;
            WheelRR.motorTorque = 0;
        }
    }
}
  • Attach SC_CarController script to "CarRoot" object
  • Attach Rigidbody component to "CarRoot" object and change its mass to 1000
  • Assign the wheel variables in SC_CarController (Wheel collider for the first 4 variables and WheelTransform for the rest of the 4)

  • For the Center of Mass variable create new GameObject, call it "CenterOfMass" and move it inside "CarRoot" object
  • Place the "CenterOfMass" object in the middle and slightly down, like this:

  • Finally for testing purposes move the Main Camera inside "CarRoot" object and point it at the car:

  • Create new script, call it "PUN2_CarSync" then paste the code below inside it:

PUN2_CarSync.cs

using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;
using Photon.Pun;

public class PUN2_CarSync : MonoBehaviourPun, IPunObservable
{
    public MonoBehaviour[] localScripts; //Scripts that should only be enabled for the local player (Ex. Car controller)
    public GameObject[] localObjects; //Objects that should only be active for the local player (Ex. Camera)
    public Transform[] wheels; //Car wheel transforms

    Rigidbody r;
    // Values that will be synced over network
    Vector3 latestPos;
    Quaternion latestRot;
    Vector3 latestVelocity;
    Vector3 latestAngularVelocity;
    Quaternion[] wheelRotations = new Quaternion[0];
    // Lag compensation
    float currentTime = 0;
    double currentPacketTime = 0;
    double lastPacketTime = 0;
    Vector3 positionAtLastPacket = Vector3.zero;
    Quaternion rotationAtLastPacket = Quaternion.identity;
    Vector3 velocityAtLastPacket = Vector3.zero;
    Vector3 angularVelocityAtLastPacket = Vector3.zero;

    // Use this for initialization
    void Awake()
    {
        r = GetComponent<Rigidbody>();
        r.isKinematic = !photonView.IsMine;
        for (int i = 0; i < localScripts.Length; i++)
        {
            localScripts[i].enabled = photonView.IsMine;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < localObjects.Length; i++)
        {
            localObjects[i].SetActive(photonView.IsMine);
        }
    }

    public void OnPhotonSerializeView(PhotonStream stream, PhotonMessageInfo info)
    {
        if (stream.IsWriting)
        {
            // We own this player: send the others our data
            stream.SendNext(transform.position);
            stream.SendNext(transform.rotation);
            stream.SendNext(r.velocity);
            stream.SendNext(r.angularVelocity);

            wheelRotations = new Quaternion[wheels.Length];
            for(int i = 0; i < wheels.Length; i++)
            {
                wheelRotations[i] = wheels[i].localRotation;
            }
            stream.SendNext(wheelRotations);
        }
        else
        {
            // Network player, receive data
            latestPos = (Vector3)stream.ReceiveNext();
            latestRot = (Quaternion)stream.ReceiveNext();
            latestVelocity = (Vector3)stream.ReceiveNext();
            latestAngularVelocity = (Vector3)stream.ReceiveNext();
            wheelRotations = (Quaternion[])stream.ReceiveNext();

            // Lag compensation
            currentTime = 0.0f;
            lastPacketTime = currentPacketTime;
            currentPacketTime = info.SentServerTime;
            positionAtLastPacket = transform.position;
            rotationAtLastPacket = transform.rotation;
            velocityAtLastPacket = r.velocity;
            angularVelocityAtLastPacket = r.angularVelocity;
        }
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        if (!photonView.IsMine)
        {
            // Lag compensation
            double timeToReachGoal = currentPacketTime - lastPacketTime;
            currentTime += Time.deltaTime;

            // Update car position and velocity
            transform.position = Vector3.Lerp(positionAtLastPacket, latestPos, (float)(currentTime / timeToReachGoal));
            transform.rotation = Quaternion.Lerp(rotationAtLastPacket, latestRot, (float)(currentTime / timeToReachGoal));
            r.velocity = Vector3.Lerp(velocityAtLastPacket, latestVelocity, (float)(currentTime / timeToReachGoal));
            r.angularVelocity = Vector3.Lerp(angularVelocityAtLastPacket, latestAngularVelocity, (float)(currentTime / timeToReachGoal));

            //Apply wheel rotation
            if(wheelRotations.Length == wheels.Length)
            {
                for (int i = 0; i < wheelRotations.Length; i++)
                {
                    wheels[i].localRotation = Quaternion.Lerp(wheels[i].localRotation, wheelRotations[i], Time.deltaTime * 6.5f);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}
  • Attach PUN2_CarSync script to "CarRoot" object
  • Attach PhotonView component to "CarRoot" object
  • In PUN2_CarSync assign SC_CarController script to Local Scripts array
  • In PUN2_CarSync assign assign Camera to Local Objects array
  • Assign WheelTransform objects to Wheels array
  • Finally Assign PUN2_CarSync script to Observed Components array in Photon View
  • Save "CarRoot" object to Prefab and place it in folder called Resources (this is needed to be able to spawn object over network)

3. Creating a Game Level

Game Level is a Scene that is loaded after joining the Room and it's where all the action happens.

  • Create a new Scene and call it "Playground" (Or if you want to keep a different name, make sure to change the name in this line PhotonNetwork.LoadLevel("Playground"); at the PUN2_GameLobby.cs).

In my case I will be using a simple scene with a plane and some cubes:

  • Create a new script and call it PUN2_RoomController (This script will handle the logic inside the Room, like spawning the players, showing player list etc.) then paste the code below inside it:

PUN2_RoomController.cs

using UnityEngine;
using Photon.Pun;

public class PUN2_RoomController : MonoBehaviourPunCallbacks
{

    //Player instance prefab, must be located in the Resources folder
    public GameObject playerPrefab;
    //Player spawn point
    public Transform[] spawnPoints;

    // Use this for initialization
    void Start()
    {
        //In case we started this demo with the wrong scene being active, simply load the menu scene
        if (PhotonNetwork.CurrentRoom == null)
        {
            Debug.Log("Is not in the room, returning back to Lobby");
            UnityEngine.SceneManagement.SceneManager.LoadScene("GameLobby");
            return;
        }

        //We're in a room. spawn a character for the local player. it gets synced by using PhotonNetwork.Instantiate
        PhotonNetwork.Instantiate(playerPrefab.name, spawnPoints[Random.Range(0, spawnPoints.Length - 1)].position, spawnPoints[Random.Range(0, spawnPoints.Length - 1)].rotation, 0);
    }

    void OnGUI()
    {
        if (PhotonNetwork.CurrentRoom == null)
            return;

        //Leave this Room
        if (GUI.Button(new Rect(5, 5, 125, 25), "Leave Room"))
        {
            PhotonNetwork.LeaveRoom();
        }

        //Show the Room name
        GUI.Label(new Rect(135, 5, 200, 25), PhotonNetwork.CurrentRoom.Name);

        //Show the list of the players connected to this Room
        for (int i = 0; i < PhotonNetwork.PlayerList.Length; i++)
        {
            //Show if this player is a Master Client. There can only be one Master Client per Room so use this to define the authoritative logic etc.)
            string isMasterClient = (PhotonNetwork.PlayerList[i].IsMasterClient ? ": MasterClient" : "");
            GUI.Label(new Rect(5, 35 + 30 * i, 200, 25), PhotonNetwork.PlayerList[i].NickName + isMasterClient);
        }
    }

    public override void OnLeftRoom()
    {
        //We have left the Room, return back to the GameLobby
        UnityEngine.SceneManagement.SceneManager.LoadScene("GameLobby");
    }
}
  • Create a new GameObject in the "Playground" scene and call it "_RoomController"
  • Attach a PUN2_RoomController script to the _RoomController Object
  • Assign a Car prefab and a SpawnPoints then save the Scene

  • Add both GameLobby and Playground Scenes to the Build settings:

4. Making a test Build

Now it's time to make a build and test it:

Everything works as expected!