# How to Make a Snake Game in Unity 3D

0 Comments ยท Jul 21, 2019
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In this post, I will be showing how to create a classic Snake Game in Unity 3D.

Try it yourself

`Unity version used in this tutorial: Unity 2018.3.0f2 (64-bit)`

## Step 1: Create the Script

Being a "One Script Game" this tutorial only requires 1 script:

SC_SnakeGameGenerator.cs

``````//You are free to use this script in Free or Commercial projects
//sharpcoderblog.com @2019

using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;

public class SC_SnakeGameGenerator : MonoBehaviour
{
//Game area resolution, the higher number means more blocks
public int areaResolution = 22;
//Snake movement speed
public float snakeSpeed = 10f;
//Main Camera
public Camera mainCamera;
//Materials
public Material groundMaterial;
public Material snakeMaterial;
public Material fruitMaterial;

//Grid system
Renderer[] gameBlocks;
//Snake coordenates
List<int> snakeCoordinates = new List<int>();
enum Direction { Up, Down, Left, Right };
Direction snakeDirection = Direction.Right;
float timeTmp = 0;
//Block where the fruit is placed
int fruitBlockIndex = -1;
//Total accumulated points
int totalPoints = 0;
//Game status
bool gameStarted = false;
bool gameOver = false;
//Camera scaling
Bounds targetBounds;
//Text styling
GUIStyle mainStyle = new GUIStyle();

// Start is called before the first frame update
void Start()
{
//Generate play area
gameBlocks = new Renderer[areaResolution * areaResolution];
for (int x = 0; x < areaResolution; x++)
{
for (int y = 0; y < areaResolution; y++)
{
quadPrimitive.transform.position = new Vector3(x, 0, y);
quadPrimitive.transform.localEulerAngles = new Vector3(90, 0, 0);
gameBlocks[(x * areaResolution) + y] = quadPrimitive.GetComponent<Renderer>();
targetBounds.Encapsulate(gameBlocks[(x * areaResolution) + y].bounds);
}
}

//Scale the MainCamera to fit the game blocks
mainCamera.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(90, 0, 0);
mainCamera.orthographic = true;
float screenRatio = (float)Screen.width / (float)Screen.height;
float targetRatio = targetBounds.size.x / targetBounds.size.y;

if (screenRatio >= targetRatio)
{
mainCamera.orthographicSize = targetBounds.size.y / 2;
}
else
{
float differenceInSize = targetRatio / screenRatio;
mainCamera.orthographicSize = targetBounds.size.y / 2 * differenceInSize;
}
mainCamera.transform.position = new Vector3(targetBounds.center.x, targetBounds.center.y + 1, targetBounds.center.z);

//Generate the Snake with 3 blocks
InitializeSnake();
ApplyMaterials();

mainStyle.fontSize = 24;
mainStyle.alignment = TextAnchor.MiddleCenter;
mainStyle.normal.textColor = Color.white;
}

void InitializeSnake()
{
snakeCoordinates.Clear();
int firstlock = Random.Range(0, areaResolution - 1) + (areaResolution * 3);

gameBlocks[snakeCoordinates[0]].transform.localEulerAngles = new Vector3(90, 90, 0);
fruitBlockIndex = -1;
timeTmp = 1;
snakeDirection = Direction.Right;
totalPoints = 0;
}

// Update is called once per frame
void Update()
{
if (!gameStarted)
{
if (Input.anyKeyDown)
{
gameStarted = true;
}
return;
}
if (gameOver)
{
//Flicker the snake blocks
if (timeTmp < 0.44f)
{
timeTmp += Time.deltaTime;
}
else
{
timeTmp = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < snakeCoordinates.Count; i++)
{
if (gameBlocks[snakeCoordinates[i]].sharedMaterial == groundMaterial)
{
gameBlocks[snakeCoordinates[i]].sharedMaterial = (i == 0 ? headMaterial : snakeMaterial);
}
else
{
gameBlocks[snakeCoordinates[i]].sharedMaterial = groundMaterial;
}
}
}

if (Input.GetKeyDown(KeyCode.Space))
{
InitializeSnake();
ApplyMaterials();
gameOver = false;
gameStarted = false;
}
}
else
{
if (timeTmp < 1)
{
timeTmp += Time.deltaTime * snakeSpeed;
}
else
{
timeTmp = 0;
if (snakeDirection == Direction.Right || snakeDirection == Direction.Left)
{
//Detect if the Snake hit the sides
if (snakeDirection == Direction.Left && snakeCoordinates[0] < areaResolution)
{
gameOver = true;
return;
}
else if (snakeDirection == Direction.Right && snakeCoordinates[0] >= (gameBlocks.Length - areaResolution))
{
gameOver = true;
return;
}

int newCoordinate = snakeCoordinates[0] + (snakeDirection == Direction.Left ? -areaResolution : areaResolution);
//Snake has ran into itself, game over
if (snakeCoordinates.Contains(newCoordinate))
{
gameOver = true;
return;
}
if (newCoordinate < gameBlocks.Length)
{
for (int i = snakeCoordinates.Count - 1; i > 0; i--)
{
snakeCoordinates[i] = snakeCoordinates[i - 1];
}
snakeCoordinates[0] = newCoordinate;
gameBlocks[snakeCoordinates[0]].transform.localEulerAngles = new Vector3(90, (snakeDirection == Direction.Left ? -90 : 90), 0);
}
}
else if (snakeDirection == Direction.Up || snakeDirection == Direction.Down)
{
//Detect if snake hits the top or bottom
if (snakeDirection == Direction.Up && (snakeCoordinates[0] + 1) % areaResolution == 0)
{
gameOver = true;
return;
}
else if (snakeDirection == Direction.Down && (snakeCoordinates[0] + 1) % areaResolution == 1)
{
gameOver = true;
return;
}

int newCoordinate = snakeCoordinates[0] + (snakeDirection == Direction.Down ? -1 : 1);
//Snake has ran into itself, game over
if (snakeCoordinates.Contains(newCoordinate))
{
gameOver = true;
return;
}
if (newCoordinate < gameBlocks.Length)
{
for (int i = snakeCoordinates.Count - 1; i > 0; i--)
{
snakeCoordinates[i] = snakeCoordinates[i - 1];
}
snakeCoordinates[0] = newCoordinate;
gameBlocks[snakeCoordinates[0]].transform.localEulerAngles = new Vector3(90, (snakeDirection == Direction.Down ? 180 : 0), 0);
}
}

ApplyMaterials();
}

if (Input.GetKeyDown(KeyCode.RightArrow))
{
int newCoordinate = snakeCoordinates[0] + areaResolution;
if (!ContainsCoordinate(newCoordinate))
{
snakeDirection = Direction.Right;
}
}
if (Input.GetKeyDown(KeyCode.LeftArrow))
{
int newCoordinate = snakeCoordinates[0] - areaResolution;
if (!ContainsCoordinate(newCoordinate))
{
snakeDirection = Direction.Left;
}
}
if (Input.GetKeyDown(KeyCode.UpArrow))
{
int newCoordinate = snakeCoordinates[0] + 1;
if (!ContainsCoordinate(newCoordinate))
{
snakeDirection = Direction.Up;
}
}
if (Input.GetKeyDown(KeyCode.DownArrow))
{
int newCoordinate = snakeCoordinates[0] - 1;
if (!ContainsCoordinate(newCoordinate))
{
snakeDirection = Direction.Down;
}
}
}

if (fruitBlockIndex < 0)
{
//Place a fruit block
int indexTmp = Random.Range(0, gameBlocks.Length - 1);

//Check if the block is not occupied with a snake block
for (int i = 0; i < snakeCoordinates.Count; i++)
{
if (snakeCoordinates[i] == indexTmp)
{
indexTmp = -1;
break;
}
}

fruitBlockIndex = indexTmp;
}
}

void ApplyMaterials()
{
//Apply Snake material
for (int i = 0; i < gameBlocks.Length; i++)
{
gameBlocks[i].sharedMaterial = groundMaterial;
bool fruitPicked = false;
for (int a = 0; a < snakeCoordinates.Count; a++)
{
if (snakeCoordinates[a] == i)
{
gameBlocks[i].sharedMaterial = (a == 0 ? headMaterial : snakeMaterial);
}
if (snakeCoordinates[a] == fruitBlockIndex)
{
//Pick a fruit
fruitPicked = true;
}
}
if (fruitPicked)
{
fruitBlockIndex = -1;
int snakeBlockRotationY = (int)gameBlocks[snakeCoordinates[snakeCoordinates.Count - 1]].transform.localEulerAngles.y;
//print(snakeBlockRotationY);
if (snakeBlockRotationY == 270)
{
}
else if (snakeBlockRotationY == 90)
{
}
else if (snakeBlockRotationY == 0)
{
}
else if (snakeBlockRotationY == 180)
{
}
totalPoints++;
}
if (i == fruitBlockIndex)
{
gameBlocks[i].sharedMaterial = fruitMaterial;
gameBlocks[i].transform.localEulerAngles = new Vector3(90, 0, 0);
}
}
}

bool ContainsCoordinate(int coordinate)
{
for (int i = 0; i < snakeCoordinates.Count; i++)
{
if (snakeCoordinates[i] == coordinate)
{
return true;
}
}

return false;
}

void OnGUI()
{
//Display Player score and other info
if (gameStarted)
{
GUI.Label(new Rect(Screen.width / 2 - 100, 5, 200, 20), totalPoints.ToString(), mainStyle);
}
else
{
GUI.Label(new Rect(Screen.width / 2 - 100, Screen.height / 2 - 10, 200, 20), "Press Any Key to Play\n(Use Arrows to Change Direction)", mainStyle);
}
if (gameOver)
{
GUI.Label(new Rect(Screen.width / 2 - 100, Screen.height / 2 - 20, 200, 40), "Game Over\n(Press 'Space' to Restart)", mainStyle);
}
}
}``````

The script above creates a grid of primitive quads, then changes their materials to one of the four: a background material, a snakehead material, snake body material, or an apple material. It also automatically places the camera directly above the grid system and changes its orthographic size to encapsulate the collective bounds of all the blocks.

## Step 2: Setup the Snake Game

Now let's set up the Snake game using the script above:

• Create new Scene
• Change the Game view resolution so the width and height are equal (ex. 600px x 600px)

• Create a new GameObject (GameObject -> Create Empty) and name it "_GameGenerator"
• Attach SC_SnakeGameGenerator.cs script to _GameGenerator Object

As you will notice SC_SnakeGameGenerator have some variables that need to be assigned:

• Main Camera variable is self-explanatory, assign the default Main Camera.
• Now for the materials, create 4 materials (Right Click -> Create -> Material) and name them respectively "ground_material", "snake_material", "head_material" and "fruit_material":

For the ground_material change its Shader to Unlit/Color and change the Main Color to black:

For the other 3 Materials change the Shader to Unlit/Texture and assign the Textures below:

For snake_material: